The chicotte in use- a photograph of a man being whipped by a member of the Force Publique with the chicotte (a whip made of hippopotamus hide).


  1. What group were the two standing men part of (compare their clothing to the previous pictures)?
  2. How might the man on the ground have felt at this moment?
  3. What purpose might the photographer have had in taking this photo?
  4. Which group(s) might have benefited from the publication of this photo?
  5. What does this photo say about the effects of colonization?
  6. Judge the value of physical punishment; is it effective, and if so, under what circumstances?