Nsala of Wala in the Nsongo district (Abir concession)- Nsala looking at the severed hand and foot of his five-year-old daughter, Boali, a victim of the Anglo-Belgian India Rubber Company (A.B.I.R.) militia. This is most likely a posed photograph.


  1. Who is missing from this photo, compared to the previous 2 photos?
  2. What does this man’s body language tell you about his emotions?
  3. What choices might this man have then faced?
  4. How did the photographer probably feel about this situation? How do you know?
  5. Why might a company’s militia have attacked civilians (how might it have benefited them)?
  6. Taken together, what do this and the previous 2 photos tell you about life in the Congo in the early 1900s?