Introduction

Ewans, M. (2002). European atrocity, African catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State, and its aftermath. New York: RoutledgeCurzon.

Hochschild, A. (1998). King Leopold's ghost: A story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Síocháin, S. Ó., & O'Sullivan, M. (Eds.). (2003). The eyes of another race: Roger Casement's Congo Report and 1903 Diary (pp. 92, 128-9, 142, and 166). Dublin: University College Dublin Press.

VanSledright, B. A. (2004). What does it mean to think historically...and how do you teach it? Social Education, 68(3), 230-233.

Wineburg, S. (1999). Historical thinking and other unnatural acts. The Phi Delta Kappan, 80(7), 488-499.


Written Accounts

General Act of the 1885 Conference of Berlin, Feb. 26, 1885. http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his312/misc/berlin.htm.

Síocháin, S. Ó., & O'Sullivan, M. (Eds.). (2003). The eyes of another race: Roger Casement's Congo Report and 1903 Diary (pp. 92, 128-9, 142, and 166). Dublin: University College Dublin Press.

Stanley, H. M. (1885). The Congo and the founding of its Free State (Vol. II, pp. 195-197). New York: Harper and Brothers. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from Google Books.


Photographs

Morel, E. D. (Photographer). (1905). The agents of the modern African slave trade. [Image of photograph]. New York, New York; Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from New York Public Library Digital Gallery (1104183).

Morel, E. D. (Photographer). (1905). Nsala of Wala in the Nsongo district (Abir concession). [Image of photograph]. New York, New York; Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from New York Public Library Digital Gallery (1104172).

Smeulders, C. (Photographer). (2009). This widest and second highest triumphal arch in the world can be found at the Jubel Park (Parc Ciquantenaire) in Brussels (Belgium). [Image of photograph]. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from Wikimedia Commons (WebXL CindySmeulders-C4-8.jpg).

Unknown author (Photographer). (late 1800s-early 1900s). The chicotte. Via: Hochschild, A. (1998). King Leopold's ghost. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Unknown author (Photographer). (late 1800s-early 1900s). Women hostages. Via: Hochschild, A. (1998). King Leopold's ghost. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Wack, H. W. (1905). Collecting rubber in forest of Lusambo (Lualaba-Kassai). The story of the Congo Free State (pp. 280-281). New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.


Political Cartoons

Mellery, X. (Artist). (late 1800s- early 1900s). La civilisation immortalise l'oeuver du Congo. [Painting]. Via Ewans, M., European Atrocity, African Catastrophe (pp. 114-115).

Partridge, B. (Artist). (1905). Expert opinion. [cartoon]. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from The Online Books Page, University of Pennsylvania (Punch Vol. 128).

Raven-Hill, L. (Artist). (1909). The guilt of delay. [cartoon]. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from The Online Books Page, University of Pennsylvania (Punch Vol. 137).

Sambourne, L. (Artist). (1906). In the rubber coils. Scene - The Congo 'Free' State. [cartoon]. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from The Online Books Page, University of Pennsylvania (Punch Vol. 131).

Starmer, W. P. (Artist). The appeal. [cartoon]. Via: Hochschild, A. (1998). King Leopold's ghost. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Villemot, J. (Artist). (1908). Je vous donnerai assez de caoutchouc pour vous faire une conscience élastique.. [Image of painting]. France; L'Assiette Au Beurre. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from Wikimedia Commons (Congo leopold.gif).